Questions organised by topic, past papers & mark schemes. 13) In which plants the annuals are absent? 6) It is much easier for a small animal to run uphill than for a large animal, because. Announcements Applying to uni? Describe the route taken by water from the soil up to the evaporating surface of a plant, Water is drawn into the root hair cells by osmosis; due to the presence of dissolved substances in the cell sap of root hairs, the concentration of cell sap is greater than that of the surrounding solution in the soil/concentration gradient; this exerts a higher osmotic pressure, thus drawing the water molecules across the cell wall and cell membrane into the root hair cells; more water drawn into the root hair cells dilutes the cell sap; making it less concentrated than that in the adjacent cortex cell of the root; due to osmotic gradient, water moves from the adjacent cells to the next by osmosis; until it enters the xylem vessels located in the center of the root; the xylem vessels of the root then conduct the water up into the xylem vessels in the stem into the leaves; there is a force in the roots which pushes water up the stem; this force is known as root pressure; and can be considerably high in some plants; energy from the endodermal cells of the root is responsible for driving this force; in the xylem vessels, water would rise up by capillarity; to some extent because the vessels are narrower and there is  a high attractive force between the water molecules and the cell walls; the cohesive; and adhesive forces are important in the maintenance of a continuous and uninterrupted water column in the xylem vessels up the tree to the leaves; water vaporizes from the spongy mesophyll cells; their cell sap becomes concentrated than the adjacent cells. Answer: International Union for Conversation of Nature and Natural Resources. (a) They lack a protein coat (b) They are smaller than viruses (c) They cause infections (d) Their RNA is of high molecular weight. (a) Prostista have photosynthetic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition (b) Some fungi are edible (c) Nuclear membrane is present Monera (d) Cell wall is absent in Animalia. 74) Which of the following statements is wrong for viroids? 1) Give an example of seedless vascular plants: 2)  Nomenclature is governed by certain universal rules. Explain how the various specialized cells are modified to carry out their functions in plants and animals, Animal cells: Sperm cell; has acrosome containing lytic enzymes; that digest the egg membranes for penetration during fertilization; has a long tail; containing numerous mitochondria; to generate maximum energy for propulsion/swimming in the vaginal fluid after ejaculation; Red blood cells; are flattened, circular/spherical biconcave in shape; to increase the surface area for packaging of haemoglobin; has haemoglobin; that combines with respiratory gases; for transport to and from body tissues; White blood cells; are amoeboid in shape hence able to change shape; to engulf pathogens through phagocytosis; lymphocytes produce antibodies to fight pathogens; Nerve cell; has extensions/dentrites; to receive and send information for sensation; Ciliated epithelial cells; have cilia for propulsion of mucus that traps dust and micro-organisms in the respiratory tract; Muscle cells; elongated, striated and contractile; to bring about movement; Plant cells: Guard cells; bean-shaped; to regulate the size of the stomata allowing gaseous exchange; and control water loss; has chloroplasts with chlorophyll; for photosynthesis; Root hair cell; elongated; thin-walled; with dense cytoplasm for absorption of water and mineral salts; Epidermal cell; thin; for protection of inner tissues from mechanical and micro-organism attack; Palisade cell; contains numerous chloroplasts with chlorophyll; for photosynthesis; elongated; to increase surface area for trapping maximum amounts of light energy; Meristematic cell; thin-walled; with dense cytoplasm; for primary and secondary growth; Max.

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