The Battle of Tours (often called the Battle of Poitiers, but not to be confused with the Battle of Poitiers, 1356) was fought on October 10, 732 between forces under the Frankish leader Charles Martel and a massive invading Islamic army led by Emir Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi Abd al Rahman, near the city of Tours, France. [30], It is thought that Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (Chapter XXIII) includes a reference to the Battle of Poitiers: "...a dreadful plague of Saracens ravaged France with miserable slaughter, but they not long after in that country received the punishment due to their wickedness".[31]. How long will the footprints on the moon last? Changing attitudes and new research have altered our views of what once seemed to matter most. The second expedition's failure put an end to any serious Muslim expedition across the Pyrenees, although raids continued. But Gibbon believes, as do most pre-modern and modern historians, that Charles had made the best of a bad situation. Words like "strategy" and "operations" have acquired meanings that might not have been recognizable a generation ago. Charles, the conflict with Hunold put aside, descended on the Provençal strongholds of the Muslims. However, these same casualty figures were recorded in the Liber pontificalis for Duke Odo of Aquitaine's victory at the Battle of Toulouse (721). "[10] Leopold von Ranke felt that "Poitiers was the turning point of one of the most important epochs in the history of the world. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. It might have been different, however, had the Muslim forces remained under control. Contemporary Arab historians and chroniclers are much more interested in the second Umayyad siege Arab defeat at Constantinople in 718, which ended in a disastrous defeat. Only after extensive reconnaissance of the Umayyad camp by Frankish soldiers — which by both historical accounts had been so hastily abandoned that even the tents remained, as the Umayyad forces headed back to Iberia with what loot remained that they could carry — was it discovered that the Muslims had retreated during the night. The next day, when the Muslims did not renew the battle, the Franks feared an ambush. The Muslim empire under the Umayyads was now a vast domain that ruled a diverse array of peoples. John H. Haaren says in Famous Men of the Middle Ages: John Bagnell Bury, writing at the beginning of the 20th century, said: Modern Western historians are clearly divided on the importance of the battle, and where it should rank in military history; see below. While Abd ar-Rahman was pursuing Odo, he decided to despoil Tours by destroying its palaces and burning its churches. It decided that Christians, and not Moslems, should be the ruling power in Europe. There is clearly some justification for ranking Tours-Poitiers among the most significant events in Frankish history when one considers the result of the battle in light of the remarkable record of the successful establishment by Muslims of Islamic political and cultural dominance along the entire eastern and southern rim of the former Christian, Roman world. Professor of Medieval History, University of Florence, Italy. Despite the great importance of this battle, its exact location remains unknown. Their victory was won by the purely defensive tactics of the infantry square; the fanatical Arabs, dashing against them time after time, were shattered to pieces, and at last fled under shelter of night. The old drums-and-bugles approach will no longer do.

Western historians, beginning with the Mozarabic Chronicle of 754, stressed the macrohistorical impact of the battle, as did the Continuations of Fredegar. But the window was closing. "[65] Davis writes, "Moslem defeat ended the Moslems' threat to western Europe, and Frankish victory established the Franks as the dominant population in western Europe, establishing the dynasty that led to Charlemagne. Not knowing that they were empty and thinking that inside them there were Saracen forces ready for battle, they sent officers to reconnoitre and discovered that all the Ishmaelite troops had left.

Fortunately for the Byzantines, the great chain kept the fleet from entering the inner harbor, and the Arab galleys were unable to sail up the Bosporus as they were under constant attack and harassment by the Greek fleet, who used Greek fire to level the differences in numbers. Some Muslim historians have argued that had the Caliph recalled his armies from Europe to aid in the siege, the city might have been taken by land, despite the legendary walls - such a recall would have doubled the army laying siege, allowed a full attack while still beating off Bulgar forces attempting to end the siege by harassing the army from outside while the defenders held the walls. "[63], A number of modern historians and writers in other fields agree with Watson, and continue to maintain that this Battle was one of history's pivotal events.

The battle was between the Merovingian Franks and the Umayyad Caliphate, with the Franks being the victors.

Thus did the victor triumph over his enemies. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Their own words record it best: (translated from Arabic) "This deadly defeat of the Moslems, and the loss of the great leader and good cavalier, Abderrahman, took place in the hundred and fifteenth year." Given the importance Arab histories of the time placed on the death of Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi Abd al Rahman and the defeat in Gaul, and the subsequent defeat and destruction of Muslim bases in what is now France, it seems reasonably certain that this battle did have macrohistorical importance in stopping westward Islamic expansion. In addition, Martel's incorporation of the stirrup and mailed cavalry into the Frankish army gave birth to the armoured Knights which would form the backbone of western armies for the next five centuries. 'Abd-al-Raḥmân, despite being a good commander, had allowed Charles to concentrate his forces and pick the field of battle. ○   Lettris The treaties reached earlier with the local population stood firm and were further consolidated in 734 when the governor of Narbonne, Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri, concluded agreements with several towns on common defense arrangements against the encroachments of Charles Martel, who had systematically brought the south to heel as he extended his domains. ○   Wildcard, crossword The Umayyad campaign into Aquitaine suffered a temporary setback at the Battle of Toulouse (721), when Duke Odo of Aquitaine (also known as Eudes the Great) broke the siege of Toulouse, taking Al-Samh ibn Malik's forces by surprise and mortally wounding the governor-general Al-Samh ibn Malik himself. ○   Boggle. It appears that the years of year-round training that Charles had bought with Church funds, paid off. The Muslims in northern Spain had easily overrun Septimania, had set up a capital at Narbonne which they called Arbuna, giving its largely Arian inhabitants honorable terms, and quickly pacified the south and for some years threatened Frankish territories. The next day, when the Umayyad forces did not renew the battle, the Franks feared an ambush. Charles could not afford to stand idly by while Frankish territories were threatened. Frankish histories claim that when the rumor went through the Arab army that Frankish cavalry threatened the booty they had taken from Bordeaux, (Charles supposedly had sent scouts to cause chaos in the Muslim base camp, and free as many of the slaves as possible, hoping to draw off part of his foe, it succeeded beyond his wildest dreams), many of the Muslim Cavalry returned to their camp. The king Abdirama having been killed, he destroyed [them], driving forth the army, he fought and won. The Frankish realm under Charles Martel was the foremost military power of Western Europe. Essentially, having easily destroyed all resistance in that part of Gaul, the invading army had split off into several raiding parties, simply looting and destroying, while the main body advanced more slowly. Neither wanted to attack, but Abd-al-Raḥmân felt in the end obligated to sack Tours, which meant he had to go through the Frankish army on the hill in front of him. The Battle of Tours (October 732),[3] also called the Battle of Poitiers and in Arabic: معركة بلاط الشهداء‎ (ma‘arakat Balâṭ ash-Shuhadâ - Battle of the Court of the Martyrs),[4] was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in north-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of Poitiers.

In 735, the new governor of al-Andalus again invaded Gaul. Odo, who despite the heavy losses was reorganizing his troops, gave the Frankish leader notice of the impending danger knocking on the heartland of his realm, and appealed to the Franks for assistance, which Charles Martel only granted after Odo agreed to submit to Frankish authority. The northern peoples remained as immobile as a wall, holding together like a glacier in the cold regions. This is also disputed by Arab histories of the period circa 722-850 which mentioned the Franks more than any other Christian people save the Byzantines, (The Arabian chronicles were compiled and translated into Spanish by José Antonio Conde, in his "Historia de la Dominación de los Árabes en España", published at Madrid in 1820, and in dealing specifically with this period, the Arab chronicles discuss the Franks as one of two non-Muslim Powers then concerning the Caliphate). But the nobility proclaimed Hunold, Odo's son, as the Duke, and Charles recognized his legitimacy when the Umayyads entered Provence as part of an alliance with Duke Maurontus the next year. What is the rising action of faith love and dr lazaro? His son retook Narbonne, and his Grandson Charlamagne actually established the Marca Hispanica across the Pyrenees in part of what today is Catalonia, reconquering Girona in 785 and Barcelona in 801. But had Martel failed, there would have been no Charlemagne, no Holy Roman Empire or Papal States. Further, the Umayyads appear not to have scouted northward for potential foes, for if they had, they surely would have noted Charles Martel as a force to be reckoned with in his own account, because of his growing domination of much of Europe from 717: this might have alerted the Umayyads that a real power led by a gifted general was rising from the ashes of the Western Roman Empire.

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