The relief of the internal pressure that has built up in rocks that have been underground for aeons can cause them to shatter. The mechanism is little understood but the particles usually have a negative charge when their diameter is under 250 μm and a positive one when they are over 500 μm.. Polar deserts (also seen as "cold deserts") have similar features, except the main form of precipitation is snow rather than rain.
 If wind gradients turn on-shore with enough strength, this sea fog is blown onto the coastal areas.  Monsoon deserts are similar. Others store water in succulent leaves or stems or in fleshy tubers. Camels survive in hot deserts by storing water in body fat in their humps.  For example, Phoenix, Arizona, receives less than 250 mm (9.8 in) of precipitation per year, and is immediately recognized as being located in a desert because of its aridity-adapted plants. These grains of sand, up to about 0.5 mm (0.020 in) in diameter are jerked into the air but soon fall back to earth, ejecting other particles in the process. People have struggled to live in deserts and the surrounding semi-arid lands for millennia. Flies, beetles, ants, termites, locusts, millipedes, scorpions and spiders have hard cuticles which are impervious to water and many of them lay their eggs underground and their young develop away from the temperature extremes at the surface. Other regions of the world have cold deserts too, for instance high altitude areas like the Himalayas. Professor David Faiman of Ben-Gurion University has stated that the technology now exists to supply all of the world's electricity needs from 10% of the Sahara Desert.  Trade wind deserts occur either side of the horse latitudes at 30° to 35° North and South. Bull. Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location.
Cold deserts may be covered with snow or ice but some are so dry that the ice sublimates away. Cacti are desert specialists, and in most species, the leaves have been dispensed with and the chlorophyll displaced into the trunks, the cellular structure of which has been modified to allow them to store water. The region experiences about seven months of winter and five months of summer. The Santa Ana winds were also a factor in the November 2008 California wildfires.
...[T]he violence and the unpredictability of the Santa Ana affect the entire quality of life in Los Angeles, accentuate its impermanence, its unreliability. In this now widely accepted system, extremely arid lands have at least twelve consecutive months without precipitation, arid lands have less than 250 mm (10 in) of annual precipitation, and semiarid lands have a mean annual precipitation of between 250 and 500 mm (10–20 in).
, Other non-sandy deserts consist of exposed outcrops of bedrock, dry soils or aridisols, and a variety of landforms affected by flowing water, such as alluvial fans, sinks or playas, temporary or permanent lakes, and oases. In December 2017, a cluster of twenty-five Southern California wildfires were exacerbated by long-lasting and strong Santa Ana winds. Cold Desert has an area of 7,770 square kilometres (1,920,000 acres).  In a really severe steady blow, 2 m (6 ft 7 in) is about as high as the sand stream can rise as the largest sand grains do not become airborne at all. Another attempt at explanation of the name claims that it derives from a Native American term for "devil wind" that was altered by the Spanish into the form "Satanás" (meaning Satan), and then later corrupted into "Santa Ana". , Deserts present a very challenging environment for animals. (September 2012) This is a list of deserts. Dust is formed from solidified clay or volcanic deposits whereas sand results from the fragmentation of harder granites, limestone and sandstone. Rounded mounds of sand without a slip face are the rare dome dunes, found on the upwind edges of sand seas. However, such factors as the temperature, humidity, rate of evaporation and evapotranspiration, and the moisture storage capacity of the ground have a marked effect on the degree of aridity and the plant and animal life that can be sustained. Mammoth Mountain experienced a near-record wind gust of 175 mph (282 km/h), on December 1, 2011..  In the Colorado Plateau it is water that has been the eroding force.
Amer.  Nevertheless, there is some plant life in the Atacama, in the form of specialist plants that obtain moisture from dew and the fogs that blow in from the Pacific.
, One of the driest places on Earth is the Atacama Desert.  Kharga Oasis in Egypt is 150 km (93 mi) long and is the largest oasis in the Libyan Desert. There are over 669 biosphere reserves around the world in over 120 countries. Shallow caves are sometimes formed at the base of cliffs by this means. There are over 669 biosphere reserves around the world in over 120 countries. When it has passed through the gut of a pronghorn it germinates readily, and the little pile of moist dung provides an excellent start to life well away from the parent tree. Barchan dunes are produced by strong winds blowing across a level surface and are crescent-shaped with the concave side away from the wind.  In other words, about eight times more water could evaporate from the region than actually falls as rain. It includes all deserts above 50,000 square kilometres (19,300 sq mi). Desert plants maximize water uptake by having shallow roots that spread widely, or by developing long taproots that reach down to deep rock strata for ground water. Many, such as the Bushmen in the Kalahari, the Aborigines in Australia and various tribes of North American Indians, were originally hunter-gatherers.
, The Arabs were probably the first organized force to conduct successful battles in the desert. Orographic lift occurs as air masses rise to pass over high ground. Cold Desert has an area of 7,770 square kilometres (1,920,000 acres). Some cold deserts have a short season of above-freezing temperatures.  As the wind narrows and is compressed into the passes its velocity increases dramatically, often to near-gale force or above.  Arid deserts receive between 25 and 200 mm (1 and 8 in) in a year and semiarid deserts between 200 and 500 mm (8 and 20 in).
The Cold Desert, also known as the Katpana Desert or Biama Nakpo, is a high-altitude desert located near Skardu, northern Gilgit-Baltistan region of India’s Jammu & Kashmir. Semi deserts can be found in the Tabernas Desert (and some of the Spanish Plateau), The Sahel, The Eurasian Steppe, most of Central Asia, the Western US, most of Northern Mexico, portions of South America (especially in Argentina) and the Australian Outback.  Desertification is caused by such factors as drought, climatic shifts, tillage for agriculture, overgrazing and deforestation.
The air has already been dried by orographic lift before reaching the Great Basin, as well as by subsidence from the upper atmosphere, so this additional warming often causes relative humidity to fall below 10 percent. ", "Emperor Penguins: Uniquely Armed for Antarctica", "Invertebrates: A Vertebrate Looks at Arthropods", "Head of Kibbutz Movement: We will not be discriminated against by the government", "Trans-Saharan trade and the West African discovery of the Mediterranean", "First Measured Century: Interview:James Gregory", "Why is oil usually found in deserts and Arctic areas?
Warfare in the desert offered great scope for tacticians to use the large open spaces without the distractions of casualties among civilian populations.
Ground water may be drawn to the surface by evaporation and the formation of salt crystals may dislodge rock particles as sand or disintegrate rocks by exfoliation.  Various episodes of hot, dry winds have been described over this history as dust storms, hurricane-force winds, and violent north-easters, damaging houses and destroying fruit orchards. As an example, Tucson, Arizona receives about 300 mm (12 in) of rain per year, however about 2,500 mm (98 in) of water could evaporate over the course of a year. In early December 2011, the Santa Ana winds were the strongest yet recorded.
The Sahara is a very large expanse of land stretching from the Atlantic rim to Egypt. Cold Deserts. A sandstorm or dust storm arises when wind blows loose sand and dust from a dry surface. Evidence suggests that the Atacama may not have had any significant rainfall from 1570 to 1971. On nights like that every booze party ends in a fight. These can experience flash floods, becoming raging torrents with surprising rapidity after a storm that may be many kilometers away. Facts about Cold Deserts 9: the increased temperature. Most shrubs have spiny leaves and shed them in the coldest part of the year. Most of the water used by these animals comes from seeds and stems that absorb and hold water.
", "A drought resistance-promoting microbiome is selected by root system under desert farming", "Agricultural Societies In Pre-European Times: Southwestern U.S. and Northwestern Mexico", "Research news: UC Desert Research and Extension Center celebrates 100 years", "5 of the World's Biggest Solar Energy Plants", "Giant solar plants in Negev could power Israel's future", "Identifying regions on Mars for past life signs", "Areas of Sand Seas on Titan from Cassini Radar and ISS: Fensal and Aztlan", Map with biodiversity scenarios for desert areas, from the Global Deserts Outlook, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Desert&oldid=983907705, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 October 2020, at 23:53. , Although the winds often have a destructive nature, they have some benefits as well. In October 2007, the winds fueled major wild fires and house burnings in Escondido, Malibu, Rainbow, San Marcos, Carlsbad, Rancho Bernardo, Poway, Ramona, and in the major cities of San Bernardino, San Diego and Los Angeles.
, Being ectotherms, reptiles are unable to live in cold deserts but are well-suited to hot ones.  They limit water loss by reducing the size and number of stomata, by having waxy coatings and hairy or tiny leaves. The deserts of North America have more than one hundred playas, many of them relics of Lake Bonneville which covered parts of Utah, Nevada and Idaho during the last ice age when the climate was colder and wetter. To live with the Santa Ana is to accept, consciously or unconsciously, a deeply mechanistic view of human behavior. Problems they need to solve include how to obtain enough water, how to avoid being eaten and how to reproduce.
Photosynthesis is the key to plant growth. These regions feature a semi-arid climate and are less extreme than regular deserts.
However, newspaper mention of the term "Satanás" in reference to the winds did not begin appearing until more than 60 years later. Where these are found, oases can occur. They used terracing techniques and grew gardens beside seeps, in moist areas at the foot of dunes, near streams providing flood irrigation and in areas irrigated by extensive specially built canals. The winds are also associated with some of the area's largest and deadliest wildfires, including some of the state's largest and deadliest fires on record, the Camp fire, Thomas Fire, and Cedar Fire, as well as the Laguna Fire, Old Fire, Esperanza Fire, Santiago Canyon Fire of 1889 and the Witch Creek Fire.
"[failed verification], The Santa Anas are katabatic winds—Greek for "flowing downhill", arising in higher altitudes and blowing down towards sea level.
, As the mountains are eroded, more and more sand is created. They reduce visibility and can remain in the atmosphere for days on end, conveyed by the trade winds for distances of up to 6,000 km (3,700 mi). They form downwind of copious sources of dry, loose sand and occur when topographic and climatic conditions cause airborne particles to settle.
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