The change can be caused by the light, or by a chemical reaction brought about by cosmetics, dust or the acidity of the skin. Because of the geology of the Nevada deposits, a majority of the material produced is hard and dense, being of sufficient quality that no treatment or enhancement is required. For the organophosphorus derivatives, see, InChI=1S/H3O4P/c1-5(2,3)4/h(H3,1,2,3,4)/p-3, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Kipton J. Powell, Paul L. Brown, Robert H. Byrne, Tamás Gajda, Glenn Hefter, Staffan Sjöberg, Hans Wanner (2005): "Chemical speciation of environmentally significant heavy metals with inorganic ligands.

Some destructive tests may be necessary; for example, the application of diluted hydrochloric acid will cause the carbonates odontolite and magnesite to effervesce and howlite to turn green, while a heated probe may give rise to the pungent smell so indicative of plastic. In extracellular fluid (pH = 7.4), this proportion is inverted (61% [HPO4]2−, 39% [H2PO4]−).

Around pH 9.8 (mid-way between the second and third pKa values) the monohydrogen phosphate ion, [HPO4]2−, is the only species present. Turquoise prehistoric artifacts (beads) are known since the fifth millennium BCE from sites in the Eastern Rhodopes in Bulgaria – the source for the raw material is possibly related to the nearby Spahievo lead–zinc ore field. A weathered and broken trachyte is host to the turquoise, which is found both in situ between layers of limonite and sandstone and amongst the scree at the mountain's base. In Persia, turquoise was the de facto national stone for millennia, extensively used to decorate objects (from turbans to bridles), mosques, and other important buildings both inside and out,[citation needed] such as the Medresseh-i Shah Husein Mosque of Isfahan. The two most important of these mines, from a historic perspective, are Serabit el-Khadim and Wadi Maghareh, believed to be among the oldest of known mines. The finest of turquoise reaches a maximum Mohs hardness of just under 6, or slightly more than window glass. At pH 1 or lower, the phosphoric acid is practically undissociated. Such material is sometimes described as "spiderweb matrix"; it is most valued in the Southwest United States and Far East, but is not highly appreciated in the Near East where unblemished and vein-free material is ideal (regardless of how complementary the veining may be). Lesser material may be carved into fetishes, such as those crafted by the Zuni. They observe that if the stone is not backed it will often crack. The Ancient Egyptian use of turquoise stretches back as far as the First Dynasty and possibly earlier; however, probably the most well-known pieces incorporating the gem are those recovered from Tutankhamun's tomb, most notably the Pharaoh's iconic burial mask which was liberally inlaid with the stone. Opaque, blue-to-green mineral: hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminium, Some natural blue to blue-green materials, such as this, Gemmological classifications by E. Ya. Part 1: The, "Phosphates – PubChem Public Chemical Database", "Scientists warn of lack of vital phosphorus as biofuels raise demand", Mass and Composition of the Continental Crust, National Council for Science and the Environment, "Updated Hinda Resource Announcement: Now world's largest phosphate deposit (04/12/2012)", "Limited amount of total phosphorus actually feeds algae, study finds",, Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 20:35. The blue is attributed to idiochromatic copper while the green may be the result of either iron impurities (replacing aluminium) or dehydration. The deposits of California and New Mexico were mined by pre-Columbian Native Americans using stone tools, some local and some from as far away as central Mexico. In the trade reconstituted turquoise is often called "block turquoise" or simply "block".

The mother rock or matrix in which turquoise is found can often be seen as splotches or a network of brown or black veins running through the stone in a netted pattern; this veining may add value to the stone if the result is complementary, but such a result is uncommon. And de-capitalize your U in Cu, otherwise if it follows the naming nomenclature it …

The Southwest United States is a significant source of turquoise; Arizona, California (San Bernardino, Imperial, Inyo counties), Colorado (Conejos, El Paso, Lake, Saguache counties), New Mexico (Eddy, Grant, Otero, Santa Fe counties) and Nevada (Clark, Elko, Esmeralda County, Eureka, Lander, Mineral County and Nye counties) are (or were) especially rich. Turquoise is nearly always cryptocrystalline and massive and assumes no definite external shape. AMP, ADP, and ATP) and in DNA and RNA. Most Chinese material is exported, but a few carvings worked in a manner similar to jade exist. [2], InChI=1S/3Cu.2H3O4P/c;;;2*1-5(2,3)4/h;;;2*(H3,1,2,3,4)/q3*+2;;/p-6, [O-]P(=O)([O-])[O-].[O-]P(=O)([O-])[O-].[Cu+2].[Cu+2]. Iran has been an important source of turquoise for at least 2,000 years. It has the appearance of yellowish-grey very brittle mass of crystalline structure.

Large-scale turquoise mining is not profitable today, but the deposits are sporadically quarried by Bedouin peoples using homemade gunpowder. It was initially named by Iranians "pērōzah" meaning "victory", and later the Arabs called it "fayrūzah", which is pronounced in Modern Persian as "fīrūzeh". Molar Mass: 380.5807. The pastel shades of turquoise have endeared it to many great cultures of antiquity: it has adorned the rulers of Ancient Egypt, the Aztecs (and possibly other Pre-Columbian Mesoamericans), Persia, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and to some extent in ancient China since at least the Shang Dynasty. Only one mine in California, located at Apache Canyon, operates at a commercial capacity today.

There are some American mines which produce materials of high enough quality that no treatment or alterations are required. Arizona is currently the most important producer of turquoise by value. [2] The addition and removal of phosphate groups (phosphorylation and dephosphorylation) are key steps in cell metabolism. The phosphate or orthophosphate ion [PO4]3− is derived from phosphoric acid by the removal of three protons H+. The Kingman Mine as of 2015 still operates alongside a copper mine outside of the city. (With some skill, oil and wax treatments can be restored. Like the Aztecs, the Pueblo, Navajo and Apache tribes cherished turquoise for its amuletic use; the latter tribe believe the stone to afford the archer dead aim. [10] Despite being one of the oldest gems, probably first introduced to Europe (through Turkey) with other Silk Road novelties, turquoise did not become important as an ornamental stone in the West until the 14th century, following a decline in the Roman Catholic Church's influence which allowed the use of turquoise in secular jewellery. Turquoise, associated with the goddess Hathor, was so liked by the Ancient Egyptians that it became (arguably[clarification needed]) the first gemstone to be imitated, the fair structure created by an artificial glazed ceramic product known as faience.

Other mines include the Blue Bird mine, Castle Dome, and Ithaca Peak, but they are mostly inactive due to the high cost of operations and federal regulations. [5] Several mines exist in the state, two of them famous for their unique colour and quality and considered the best in the industry: the Sleeping Beauty Mine in Globe ceased turquoise mining in August 2012. Inorganic phosphate is generally denoted Pi and at physiological (homeostatic) pH primarily consists of a mixture of [HPO4]2− and [H2PO4]− ions. Cu3(PO4)2 is a green powder at room temperature.

Gem-quality material, in the form of compact nodules, is found in the fractured, silicified limestone of Yunxian and Zhushan, Hubei province.

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