# first law of thermodynamics conceptual questions

75. AKA change in internal energy = 0. 90. 68. What is the change in internal energy for the system? 24. What is the work done on the gas? But ∆U = 0 Increase of temperature implies increase of internal energy.

Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. 93. An ideal diatomic gas at 80 K is slowly compressed adiabatically and reversibly to half its volume. The temperature of the gas changes from 300 K to 350 K as a result of the expansion. this is expressed in the equation; Well, increase in pressure = increase in temperature.

(b) If the process is carried out in the opposite direction, what is the work done on the gas? In an expansion, 500 J of work are done by the gas. (a) How much mechanical energy is dissipated in the collision? Consider a transformation from point A to B in a two-step process. How much more internal energy does this gas have than the same volume has at zero gauge pressure (which is equivalent to normal atmospheric pressure)? 2C + H2 ----------> C2H5 In a diesel engine, the fuel is ignited without a spark plug. 47. The process is continued quasi-statically until the final pressure is 4/3 of the initial pressure \(\displaystyle p_1\). What is the change in internal energy for the process? 54. The temperature of an ideal monatomic gas rises by 8.0 K. What is the change in the internal energy of 1 mol of the gas at constant volume? in case you recommend the inlet and outlet mass bypass quotes, they are an analogous by using fact of conservation of mass. So the part of the equation CdT = 0 because dT = 0 . The absorption of heat by the system tends to raise the energy of the system. When the gas expands along AC, it does 400 J of work and absorbs 300 J of heat. 64. 1. Why are there two specific heats for gases \(\displaystyle C_p\) and \(\displaystyle C_V\), yet only one given for solid?

(a) By calculating \(\displaystyle pΔV\), find the work done by the steam when the piston moves 0.800 m. Note that this is the net work output, since gauge pressure is used. (d) Find the change in the internal energy of the gas in the process. The state of 30 moles of steam in a cylinder is changed in a cyclic manner from a-b-c-a, where the pressure and volume of the states are: a (30 atm, 20 L), b (50 atm, 20 L), and c (50 atm, 45 L). Can anyone explain? Assume ideal gas behavior. When a gas expands along path AC shown below, it does 400 J of work and absorbs either 200 or 400 J of heat. ? Consider the process for steam in a cylinder shown below. 84. 56. 69. As shown below, if the heat absorbed by the gas along AB is 400 J, determine the quantities of heat absorbed along. 92. (c) Find the work done by the gas in the process. When a liquid is vaporized, its change in internal energy is not equal to the heat added. Standard heat of formation i.e.

Explain your answer. 3.

6. 2. A hand-driven tire pump has a piston with a 2.50-cm diameter and a maximum stroke of 30.0 cm. (b) When the gas makes the transition from C to A along CDA, 800 J of work are done on it from C to D. How much heat does it exchange along CDA? 18.1 Thermodynamics; 18.2 Absolute Zero; 18.3 First Law of Thermodynamics; 18.4 Adiabatic Processes; 18.5 Meteorology and the First Law; 18.6 Second Law of Thermodynamics; 18.7 Energy Tends to Disperse; 18.8 Entropy 79. A monatomic ideal gas undergoes a quasi-static adiabatic expansion in which its volume is doubled. Show that the work done by the gas in the expansion is pV(ln 4). 12. 15. The Universe cant magic into existence, it has to have a cause. The insulated cylinder shown below is closed at both ends and contains an insulating piston that is free to move on frictionless bearings. Conceptual Questions. Raise Pressure => Raise Temperature and Lower Volume, Raise Temperature => Raise Pressure and Raise Volume, Lower Volume => Raise Temperature and Raise Pressure. Pi Vi = Piso Vf 37. 36. It is unlikely that a process can be isothermal unless it is a very slow process. The required equation is The temperature of the gas changes from 300 K to 350 K as a result of the expansion. 27.

When a gas expands along AB (see below), it does 500 J of work and absorbs 250 J of heat. What happens to the temperature of an ideal gas in an adiabatic expansion? What's happening to the work, heat energy, and change in internal energy? (c) How much heat was transferred to the gas? How would time flow if we stayed absolutely still? Instead, air in a cylinder is compressed adiabatically to a temperature above the ignition temperature of the fuel; at the point of maximum compression, the fuel is injected into the cylinder. Increase of temperature (Pressure increases) implies increase of internal energy. When the pressure from the outside is decreased while keeping the temperature the same as the room temperature, the volume of the gas doubles. 89. However, Pressure and Volume are inversely proportionate to each other cause. A helium-filled toy balloon has a gauge pressure of 0.200 atm and a volume of 10.0 L. How much greater is the internal energy of the helium in the balloon than it would be at zero gauge pressure? 74. 33.

If temperature is kept constant, pV is a constant. The gas is now compressed isothermally until its volume is back to 5 L, but its pressure is now 2 MPa (step 3). A gas follows \(\displaystyle pV=bp+c_T\) on an isothermal curve, where p is the pressure, V is the volume, b is a constant, and c is a function of temperature. 82. 80. (a) How much heat does the gas exchange along BC? If γ=1.4, what is the ratio \(\displaystyle V_1/V_2\)? (b) What average force do you exert on the piston, neglecting friction and gravitational force? (a) How much work do you do in one stroke if the average gauge pressure is \(\displaystyle 2.4×10^5N/m^2\) (about 35 psi)? The transfer of heat energy from a gas to to its surroundings is the measure of change in its moleculuar kinetic energy. -----------------------------------------------. An ideal monatomic gas at a pressure of \(\displaystyle .0×10^5N/m^2\) and a temperature of 300 K undergoes a quasi-static isobaric expansion from \(\displaystyle 2.0×10^3\) to \(\displaystyle 4.0×10^3cm^3.\). A great deal of effort, time, and money has been spent in the quest for a so-called perpetual-motion machine, which is defined as a hypothetical machine that operates or produces useful work indefinitely and/or a hypothetical machine that produces more work or energy than it consumes. (d) What are initial and final temperatures? Does adding heat to a system always increase its internal energy? You can sign in to vote the answer. 87. The performance of work by the system, on the other hand, tends to lower the energy of the system because performance of work requires expenditure of energy. The temperature drops in this process. Calculate the net work output of a heat engine following path ABCDA as shown below. ----------------------------------------------. Plot ln p vs. V and determine γγ for this gas from your graph. 16. 13. dQ is negative or positive according to the resultant sign of du and dw. 88. (c) What is the change in the internal energy of each gas? 18.

An ideal diatomic gas at 80 K is slowly compressed adiabatically to one-third its original volume.

63. How much heat is added to the expanding gas? 48.

Hope this helped! 17. So that is one of your answers: Heat leaves the system therefore heat is negative.

However, gas does work when it expands. 19. When a gas undergoes a quasi-static isobaric change in volume from 10.0 to 2.0 L, 15 J of work from an external source are required. An ideal monatomic gas at 300 K expands adiabatically and reversibly to twice its volume. When a dilute gas expands quasi-statically from 0.50 to 4.0 L, it does 250 J of work. (a) Find the volume and temperature of the final state. (: Inlet mass and outlet mass could be something reckoning on the source and receiver. (b) Assuming that \(\displaystyle C_v\) for the bob plus bullet is 3R, calculate the temperature increase of the system due to the collision. (b) How much heat is exchanged? Suppose that air at 20°C is taken into the cylinder at a volume \(\displaystyle V_1\) and then compressed adiabatically and quasi-statically to a temperature of 600°C and a volume \(\displaystyle V_2\). How can an object transfer heat if the object does not possess a discrete quantity of heat? Show these steps on a pV diagram and determine from your graph the net work done by the gas. 46. The piston divides the chamber into two compartments containing gases A and B. Hence for the expansion of a gas, V2 > V1, which shows that numerically the work ... One mole of an ideal gas is heated at constant pressure from 0oC to 200oC. There is no change in the internal energy of an ideal gas undergoing an isothermal process since the internal energy depends only on the temperature. 34. Calculate the work done by the gas.

Use numerical values to plot two isotherms of 1 mol of helium gas using ideal gas law and two adiabatic processes mediating between them. What is the pressure of the gas? Assuming that the gas temperature remains constant at 300 K. (a) what is the change in the internal energy of the gas? Which of these values is correct? (d) What is the change in internal energy of the gas? If the pressure and volume of a system are given, is the temperature always uniquely determined? Compare the charge in internal energy of an ideal gas for a quasi-static adiabatic expansion with that for a quasi-static isothermal expansion.

(b) Find the temperature of the initial state. 96. 81. 77. If so, give examples. The movement of the wall is controlled so that the wall moves in infinitesimal quasi-static steps. Then it is cooled isochorically until the pressure is 1 MPa (step 2). (b) Find the amount of heat exchanged by the system when it goes from A to B on the ACB path.

(a) Calculate the work done on the gas along the closed path shown below. When the gas returns to A along CA, it exhausts 100 J of heat to its surroundings. Consider these scenarios and state whether work is done by the system on the environment (SE) or by the environment on the system (ES): (c) a sealed empty gas can expands on a hot day, bowing out the walls. 60. So, if it supposed to get hotter but it doesent then heat must be leaving the gas. Assume \(\displaystyle C_V=5R\) and \(\displaystyle C_p=C_V+R\) for the diatomic ideal gas in the conditions given. First, the pressure is lowered from 3 MPa at point A to a pressure of 1 MPa, while keeping the volume at 2 L by cooling the system. 83.

(a) How much heat is absorbed by the gas when it slowly expands isothermally to twice its initial volume? A gas in a cylindrical closed container is adiabatically and quasi-statically expanded from a state A (3 MPa, 2 L) to a stateB with volume of 6 L along the path \(\displaystyle 1.8pV=constant.\).

For limiting velocity ,the acceleration of the particle is? 4. If volume increases, (pressure decreases) work done is negative. Is the answer the same as in part (a)? So, yeah...if you compress the gas it gets hotter. Two moles of a monatomic ideal gas such as helium is compressed adiabatically and reversibly from a state (3 atm, 5 L) to a state with pressure 4 atm.

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