citroides; C. lanatus var. Some examples of citrus fruits include oranges, lemons, limes, and grapefruit. [55][56], Flower stems of male and female watermelon blossoms, showing ovary on the female, Watermelon and other fruit in Boris Kustodiev's Merchant's Wife, Watermelon out for sale in Maa Kochilei Market, Rasulgarh, Odisha, India, A large fruit with a smooth hard rind, of the gourd family. Citric acid in fruit can cause problems for teeth and your digestive system. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like flowering plant originally domesticated in Africa. citroides (L. H. Bailey) Mansf. [2], Another variety known as karkoer or bitterboela is unpalatable to humans, but the seeds may be eaten. The variety was an important food source for travellers in the Kalahari Desert.

[16] Watermelons were cultivated for their high water content and were stored to be eaten during dry seasons. [26] The cubic shape was originally designed to make the melons easier to stack and store, but these "square watermelons" may be triple the price of normal ones, so appeal mainly to wealthy urban consumers. The 'Orangeglo' has a very sweet orange flesh, and is a large, oblong fruit weighing 9–14 kg (20–31 lb). The rind is black with no stripes or spots. It was reassigned to the genus Citrullus in 1836, under the replacement name Citrullus vulgaris, by the German botanist Heinrich Adolf Schrader. [46][47] Watermelon juice can be blended with other fruit juices or made into wine. The average selling price is generally around 25,000 yen ($250). 2017. [15], Evidence of the cultivation of both C. lanatus and C. colocynthis in the Nile Valley has been found from the second millennium BC onward, and seeds of both species have been found at Twelfth Dynasty sites and in the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. The more than 1200[30] cultivars of watermelon range in weight from less than 1 kilogram (2 1⁄4 pounds) to more than 90 kg (200 lb); the flesh can be red, pink, orange, yellow or white.

[24][25], Farmers of the Zentsuji region of Japan found a way to grow cubic watermelons by growing the fruits in metal and glass boxes and making them assume the shape of the receptacle.

The white to yellow flowers grow singly in the leaf axils and the corolla is white or yellow inside and greenish-yellow on the outside. [13], The watermelon is a flowering plant that originated in Africa, though there is conflicting research about whether its source is West Africa[14] or Northeast Africa. Grafting such varieties onto disease-resistant rootstocks offers protection. Watermelon pulp contains carotenoids, including lycopene. Some smaller, spherical varieties of watermelon—both red- and yellow-fleshed—are sometimes called "icebox melons". [52], Citrullis lanatus, variety caffer, grows wild in the Kalahari Desert, where it is known as tsamma. It produced high yields and was resistant to the most serious watermelon diseases: anthracnose and fusarium wilt. citroides)[28]. All rights reserved -. Considerable breeding effort has developed disease-resistant varieties. The fruit can be eaten raw or pickled, and the rind is edible after cooking. It is grown as food in Africa, especially dry or desert regions, including South Africa. This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 01:48. It has a thin, light and dark green striped rind, and sweet white flesh with black seeds. [citation needed], The actual fruit of this plant resembles the more modern, domesticated watermelons, except that it is smaller and more spheroid. [citation needed]. These are no longer grown to any great extent, but their lineage has been further developed into hybrid varieties with higher yields, better flesh quality and attractive appearance. The male flowers predominate at the beginning of the season; the female flowers, which develop later, have inferior ovaries. For the citrus fruit, see citron. [29] Some examples of citrus fruits include oranges, lemons, limes, and grapefruit. [3] Wild plants have fruits up to 20 cm (8 in) in diameter, while cultivated varieties may exceed 60 cm (24 in).

Georgia, Florida, Texas, California and Arizona are the United States' largest watermelon producers, with Florida producing more watermelon than any other state. [18] After the Civil War, black people were maligned for their association with watermelon. [20] Seedless watermelons became more popular in the 21st century, rising to nearly 85% of total watermelon sales in the United States in 2014.[21]. [9], The sweet watermelon was formally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 and given the name Cucurbita citrullus. [5][51], The Oklahoma State Senate passed a bill in 2007 declaring watermelon as the official state vegetable, with some controversy about whether it is a vegetable or a fruit. [4], The US Department of Agriculture recommends using at least one beehive per acre (4,000 m2 per hive) for pollination of conventional, seeded varieties for commercial plantings. Watermelons were rapidly accepted in Hawaii and other Pacific islands when they were introduced there by explorers such as Captain James Cook. is a synonym of C. amarus Schrad. In June 2008, one of the first harvested watermelons was sold at an auction for 650,000 yen (US$6,300), making it the most expensive watermelon ever sold. [42], Others were also working on disease-resistant cultivars; J. M. Crall at the University of Florida produced 'Jubilee' in 1963 and C. V. Hall of Kansas State University produced 'Crimson Sweet' the following year. [45] Secondary producers included Iran, Turkey, and Brazil. [50], Watermelon rinds may be eaten, but their unappealing flavor may be overcome by pickling,[41] sometimes eaten as a vegetable, stir-fried or stewed. Citrus fruits are edible fruits that belong to the genus Citrus, and family Rutaceae. [23] Lack of pollen is thought to contribute to "hollow heart" which causes the flesh of the watermelon to develop a large hole, sometimes in an intricate, symmetric shape. The watermelon is a citrus fruit in the curcurbitacae family, the same family as the cucumber. Gentes Herbarum 2: 175–186. Renner, S. S., A. Sousa, and G. Chomicki. The time and place of its first domestication is unknown, but it appears to have been grown in ancient Egypt at least four thousand years ago. [48], The seeds have a nutty flavor and can be dried and roasted, or ground into flour. The sweet, juicy flesh is usually deep red to pink, with many black seeds, although seedless varieties exist. What Fruits Are Not Citrus? Try apples, pears, watermelon and berries. [17], In the 7th century, watermelons were being cultivated in India, and by the 10th century had reached China, which is today the world's single largest watermelon producer. Seedless hybrids have sterile pollen. It takes about 90–100 days from planting to harvest. lanatus var. It is a highly cultivated fruit worldwide, having more than 1,000 varieties. Hook.f. Your email address will not be published. DNA data reveal that C. lanatus var. Three discussions in Cucurbitaceae. It can grow well in cool climates. It spread northwards through southern Europe, perhaps limited in its advance by summer temperatures being insufficient for good yields. The citron melon (Citrullus caffer) is a relative of the watermelon, also called Citrullus lanatus var. Its scientific name is Citrullus lanatus. from South African arid regions, while the sweet watermelon is closer to Citrullus mucosospermus (Fursa) Fursa from West Africa and populations from Sudan.

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