He was elected in only two days, one of the shortest conclaves in history. Legal books were scarce, standards inconsistent, and judges were often accused of favoritism. He took the name Pius, after his generous patron and the long-suffering prisoner of Napoleon, Pius VII. Pius IX >Pius IX (1792-1878) was pope from 1846 to 1878.

Thus, the major achievements of Pius IX are his Mariology and the First Vatican Council. [53] Some violent street protests against the "papal aggression" resulted in the Ecclesiastical Titles Act 1851 being passed by Parliament, which on penalty of imprisonment and fines forbade any Catholic bishop to use any episcopal title "of any city, town or place, or of any territory or district (under any designation or description whatsoever), in the United Kingdom". His hometown erupted in celebration, and his personal staff, following a long-standing tradition, burned his cardinal vestments. Indeed, in an audience for French pilgrims, he spoke these remarkable - but unfortunately forgotten - words: Pope Pius IX He installed gas-powered street lighting in Rome, apportioned a share of the papal charities for the Jews, and abolished the law which required Jews to attend weekly Catholic sermons. He was not, in 1846, the most prominent liberal candidate likely to succeed Gregory XVI; but it took the conclave only two days to determine his election and so prevent that of the conservative Luigi Lambruschini. Not `essential' Catholicism, but those who wished to prevent Catholics from being contaminated by modern ideas, had made an unholy alliance with antisemitism. By thus appearing to put the church on the side of reaction against liberalism, science, democracy, and tolerance, the Syllabus seemed to signal a retreat by the church from the modern world. Liberal opinion clung to these measures as absolutely essential throughout the pontificate of Gregory XVI.

By the time of his death, soon after the close of the 19th century, Leo had restored the prestige of the papacy, and the church seemed in many ways to be entering a new era of respect and influence. Pius IX, original name Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, (born May 13, 1792, Senigallia, Papal States—died February 7, 1878, Rome; beatified September 3, 2000feast day February 7), Italian head of the Roman Catholic church whose pontificate (1846–78) was the longest in history and was marked by a transition from moderate political liberalism to conservatism. [7] Mastai was ordained a priest on 10 April 1819. To that end Leo also sponsored the start of a definitive critical edition of the works of Aquinas. When he returned to Rome, the successor of Pius VII, Pope Leo XII appointed him head of the hospital of San Michele in Rome (1825–1827) and canon of Santa Maria in Via Lata. The extraordinary heat of the summer of 1877 worsened the sores to the effect that he had to be carried. A cautious and experienced diplomat who feared that bold actions would cause more harm than good, he was not a prophet at a time when the world may have needed one. Dollinger railed against Pius IX's decision in 1867 to raise to sainthood one of sixteenth-century Spain's notorious grand inquisitors, Don Pedro Arbues de Epilae.

[80] Nevertheless, he insisted on celebrating daily Mass. The pope’s conservative nature was demonstrated most dramatically in his condemnation of Americanism.

I am the Vicar of Christ, the author of peace and lover of charity, and my office is to bestow an equal affection on all nations. The two papal universities in Rome and Bologna suffered much from revolutionary activities in 1848 but their standards in the areas of science, mathematics, philosophy and theology were considered adequate. Pius celebrated the 1,800th anniversary of the martyrdom of the Apostle Peter and Apostle Paul on 29 June 1867 with 512 bishops, 20,000 priests and 140,000 lay persons in Rome.

Faced with a deadlock and persuaded by Bernetti to prevent Lambruschini's election, liberals and moderates decided to cast their votes for Mastai Ferretti in a move that contradicted the general mood throughout Europe. Pius IX was the fourth son of Girolamo Mastai-Ferretti, gonfalonier of Senigallia, and the countess Caterina Solazzi.

He appointed an able and enlightened minister, Rossi, to administer the Papal States.

In the encyclical Mystici corporis Christi (June 29, 1943; “Mystical Body of Christ”) he sought to explain the nature of the church and its relationship to nonbelievers, and in Divino afflante Spiritu (September 30, 1943; “Inspired by the Divine Spirit”) he reinvigorated Catholic scholarship by approving the limited use of modern methods of historical criticism in biblical studies. More diplomatic and flexible than Pius, Leo also initiated contacts with contemporary scholarship. As soon as he learned about the seriousness of the situation of the king, he absolved him of all excommunications and other ecclesiastical punishments. However, in 1863 the pope did meet privately with a Confederate envoy and emphasized the need for emancipation. The matter was only resolved in international law by the Lateran Treaty (also known as the Lateran Pacts or Lateran Accords), agreed in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, the latter receiving financial compensation for the loss of the Papal States, in substitution of which Italy recognized the Vatican City State as an independent territorial state which is the expression of a sovereign entity in International law known as the Holy See.

On 24 November 1848, facing a rebellion by Italian nationalists, he fled to Gaeta in Naples; he returned in 1850.

The council was to deal with papal infallibility, enhancing the role of the papacy and decreasing the role of the bishops. Pope Pius IX, was the church's longest reigning pope by far, 31.5 years 5 more than the runner up, John Paul II for whom Pius IX was a personal idols.

The secular or laypersons were strongly in the majority with 6,850 persons versus 300 members of the clergy. On 26 July 1862, before Garibaldi and his volunteers were stopped at Aspromonte: Pius IX confided his fears to Lord Odo Russell, the British Minister in Rome, and asked whether he would be granted political asylum in England after the Italian troops had marched in. The interests of the church had always been his first concern.

On September 20, 1870, Italian troops occupied Rome, and in October a plebiscite was held in which an overwhelming majority of the votes cast were for the incorporation of Rome in the kingdom of Italy.

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