After You want to use a leaf with a surface that is not too thick and is fairly smooth, without much hair. This makes the temperature more accurate as less likely the temperature will fluctuate. spinach (spinacia oleracea) leaf disk assay introduction chloroplasts, found in mesophyll cells in leaves are the major sites for photosynthesis, the conversion

A tissue can be simple or complex depending upon whether it is composed of one or more than one type of cell. stream environment increases too, so the amount of water should be kept constant. Cellular respiration occurs at the same time, which causes it to consume oxygen. This is the same pattern for graph 1, as after 25 degrees the curve of best fit increases steadily. Some of these triose phosphates condense to form hexose phosphates, sucrose, starch and cellulose or are converted to acetylcoenzyme A to make amino acids and lipids. (2020, Jun 02). This will affect the rate of photosynthesis, as each will have a different total surface area, therefore absorbing different amounts of light. Divide by the number of pieces of data in that set of data. To achieve optimum growth of some plants, farmers keep them in greenhouses that regulate conditions such as humidity and temperature. Human error could have affected them, this is because the elodea was changed in between the days. Chlorophyll absorbs light from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. I predict that when the elodea is placed in water with a temperature of 0oC, there rate of photosynthesis will be at a minimum. During the night, for example, or when conditions are not prime, plants release carbon dioxide. 1. The variables that could change the rate of photosynthesis are: Temperature, light intensity, Co2 concentration and amount and type of weed. <> endstream Divide the figure in step 2 by the figure calculated in step 6. You also need liquid soap and a plastic syringe of at least 10 ccs, with any needle removed. It takes long for the ice to melt and for it to affect the temperature. one of the erlenmayer flasks and cover the gabs between the vernier oxygen Samuel Markings has been writing for scientific publications for more than 10 years, and has published articles in journals such as "Nature." This will be 7cm each time. to the environment even the two different amounts of water have the same The thermal energy breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the secondary and tertiary structure of the enzyme together, so the enzyme (and especially the active site) loses its shape to become a random coil. 2. (http://ghs.gresham.k12.or.us/science/ps/sci/ibbio/cellenergy/photosynnotes/photosyn/intensity.htm). 9. 1. The elodea was attached to a scale and syringe that was used to pull through oxygen bubbles so we could measure the rate of oxygen released and relate this to the rate of photosynthesis. Count the number of oxygen bubbles given off by the plant in a one -minute period. N�� ����kؤ. At higher concentrations of carbon dioxide, other factors are rate limiting, such as light intensity or temperature. Graph 1 rapidly decreases from 44oC to 75oC where the average rate of oxygen decreases from 35.2mm3/min to 0mm3/min. The light intensity will be measured with a light intensity meter. Light intensity meter (1-10) (not very accurate as lever fluctuates). 4. I predict that few if any oxygen bubbles will be produced. At medium temperatures, between 50 and 68 degrees Fahrenheit, or 10 and 20 degrees Celsius, the photosynthetic enzymes work at their optimum levels, so photosynthesis rates gauge high. Optimum photosynthetic rates lead to the removal of greater amounts of carbon dioxide from the local atmosphere, producing greater amounts of glucose. This is the lock and key theory that only a certain substrate (key) can fit into a certain active site (or key hole) in the enzyme(lock). Photosynthesis is one of the most remarkable biochemical processes found on Earth and allows plants to use sunlight to make food from water and carbon dioxide. A globe. The rate of photosynthesis is measured by oxygen released. You do not want a sudsy soap; if you find you get suds, add more baking soda. Type:

Investigating Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis, University of California, Berkeley: Photosynthetic Adaptation to Temperature, Thompson Morgan: Top Ten Tips for Heating a Greenhouse in Winter. My t value is bigger than the value from the table therefore I am 95% confident that there is a significance difference in the results between the two temperatures. This is where the enzymes have the maximum amount of kinetic energy, therefore the active site and substrate will collide more, with more energy forming the product GP at the fastest possible rate. temperature. This will be done by measuring the rate of oxygen released from the olodea. find leaves with the same size and mass so while conducting the experiment, the ��}:uI�.pҩK�w�3�R]�����R�!�b�12�������&X��*F*42e2rf�x�����4�E This is because water can easily be spilt in during the experiment, therefore a chance it will be on the floor, making it a hazard. collecting data with at least doing 3 trials for each sample, to get more As temperature increases above freezing, the rate of photosynthesis increases. We should also use the exact same equipment for each temperature e.g. This is the equivalent of about 1/8 of a teaspoon of baking soda in 300 milliliters of water. The general formula is: With the mean, we can now calculate the standard deviation.

heat it up and some water leaves the kettle as a gas. We will cut the elodea to exactly 7 cm at a slant. More oxygen bubbles are produced when the light is closer to the beaker. Here light energy is converted to chemical energy. This is the energy that drives the process of photosynthesis in the system.

1.360749506 x 10-3 + 2.120994181= 2.122354931. The graph of photosynthetic rate versus temperature presents a curved appearance with the peak rate occurring close to room temperature.

14. 2 0 obj Maximum photosynthetic rates vary between plant species, but crops such as maize can achieve carbon dioxide assimilation rates as high as 0.075 ounce per cubic foot per hour, or 100 milligrams per decimeter per hour. The variable I will change is Co2 concentration.

10, As you measure the temperature of At low temperature, the enzyme does not have enough energy to meet many substrate molecules, so the reaction is slowed. Pull the bubbles so that they line up with the scale, note down the volume of oxygen released. graduated cylinder. I will also measure the light intensity using a light intensity meter. Leave it on for a few days, and then compare it to the rest of the leaves. Therefore in our actual experiment we will do at least ten different temperatures, in order to make the results more reliable. At the optimum temperature, the enzyme is most efficient and the rate if maximum. The shape of the graph shows this as steepness of the best-fit curve increases till around 25oC. This will be done by measuring the distance of the lamp from the elodea on each experiment to keep the distance equal. Water level must be higher than elodea in order to count carbon dioxide bubbles. How this experiment works is that you take a leaf disk, which naturally floats. As light intensity increases, more ATP and NADPH are created, thus increasing the photosynthetic rate. Use of microorganisms and fermenter to manufacture enzymes, Use of microorganisms to manufacture antibiotic penicillin, Main nutrients: carbohydrates, fats and proteins, Food test 2 - Benedict's test for Reducing Sugars, Food test 3 - Emulsion (ethanol) test for Fats, Other Nutrients: Vitamins, Minerals, Fiber and Water, Using microorganism in making yoghurt and single cell protein, Food additives - uses, benefits and health hazards, Use of modern technology for increasing food production, Problems of world food supplies and the causes of famine, Absorption – function of the small intestine and significance of villi, Photosynthesis investigations - Principles and Starch test, Effect of Light intensity on the rate of Photosynthesis, Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Photosynthesis, Effect of Carbon Dioxide on the Rate of Photosynthesis, Optimum conditions for photosynthesis in Green house, Plant's mineral requirements and fertilisers, Distribution of Xylem and Phloem in roots, stems and leaves, Passage of water through root, stem and leaf, Transpiration in plants and factors affecting tranpiration rate, Adaptations of the leaf, stem and root to different environments, Translocation of applied chemicals throughout the plant, Transport of materials from sources to sinks at different seasons, Effect of exercise on heartbeat and causes of a coronary heart disease, Arteries, veins and capillaries - structure and functions, Immune system - antibody, tissue rejection.

endobj By looking at the class average graph and our group graph they both follow the same trend. pour the 100ml(±0,5ml ) of water in the water bath. This cycle is the Calvin cycle.



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