Employees of the Vatican pay no Vatican City (/ˈvætɪkən/ (listen)), officially the Vatican City State (Italian: Stato della Città del Vaticano;[g] Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae),[h][i] is the Holy See's independent city state, an enclave within Rome, Italy. Canon law prohibits the College and the Camerlengo from introducing any innovations or novelties in the government of the Church during this period. [105] The City's postal service is sometimes said to be "the best in the world",[106] and faster than the postal service in Rome.[106]. ", "Man seriously injured after setting self on fire in St. Peter's Square", "INTER SANCTAM SEDEM ET ITALIAE REGNUM CONVENTIONES* INITAE DIE 11 FEBRUARII 1929", "Researching the Law of the Vatican City State". However, after his election, Pope Francis made the Domus Sanctae Marthae, completed in 1996, his official residence.

The Holy See itself has existed continuously as a juridical entity since Roman Imperial times and has been internationally recognised as a powerful and independent sovereign entity since late antiquity to the present, without interruption even at times when it was deprived of territory (e.g. branches such as the Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome, and the There are no political parties in the Vatican City. [39] On the following day, the new government declared Rome an open city, after consulting the Holy See on the wording of the declaration, but the UK had decided that they would never recognize Rome as an open city.[40]. arm, and Italy takes responsibility for defense.

The name "Vatican" was already in use in the time of the Roman Republic for the Ager Vaticanus, a marshy area on the west bank of the Tiber across from the city of Rome, located between the Janiculum, the Vatican Hill and Monte Mario, down to the Aventine Hill and up to the confluence of the Cremera creek. [38] In December 1942, the UK's envoy suggested to the Holy See that Rome be declared an "open city", a suggestion that the Holy See took more seriously than was probably meant by the UK, who did not want Rome to be an open city, but Mussolini rejected the suggestion when the Holy See put it to him. Pietro Parolin in Occasione della sua Nomina a Segretario di Stato", "Economic Report of the Holy See for 2000", "How the Vatican built a secret property empire using Mussolini's millions", "Bilateral and Multilateral Relations of the Holy See, update on October 22, 2009", Bilateral and Multilateral Relations of the Holy See, "179 states have full diplomatic relations with the Holy See", "Mission Impossible: Eject the Holy See from the United Nations", Holy See Press Office: "Bilateral and Multilateral Relations of the Holy See", Foreign & Commonwealth Office: Travel & living abroad, Ambassador's Address on UK-Holy See Relations, Lecture by Archbishop Giovanni Lajolo, 16 February 2006, Lecture by Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran, 22 April 2002, "Päpstliche Schweizergarde: 1506 Foundation", "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. (monarchical), with senior members of the church hierarchy, appointed by policing of the state is left to the Civil Guard. [112], Under the terms of article 22 of the Lateran Treaty,[113] Italy will, at the request of the Holy See, punish individuals for crimes committed within Vatican City and will itself proceed against the person who committed the offence, if that person takes refuge in Italian territory.

According to the Lateran Treaty (Art.

[35], The Holy See, which ruled Vatican City, pursued a policy of neutrality during World War II, under the leadership of Pope Pius XII. "Vatican" is derived from the name of an Etruscan settlement, Vatica or Vaticum located in the general area the Romans called Ager Vaticanus, "Vatican territory".[19]. Its seven members are cardinals appointed by the Pope for terms of five years. [38] At the end of 2005, the Guard had 134 members. The Vatican City State budget includes the Vatican Museums and post office and is supported financially by the sale of stamps, coins, medals and tourist mementos; by fees for admission to museums; and by publications sales.

Organization (Intelsat), the Organization for Security and Co-operation Candidates must be members of the church, baptized in the church and be in a position to be ordained as Bishops since the Pope is the Bishop of Rome. Uncover great artistic masterpieces of the Vatican on this tour specifically designed for visitors with limited time. People arriving in England from Italy, San Marino and Vatican City State from 4am on Sunday 18 October will need to self-isolate for 2 weeks as … The Pope is the ruler of both Vatican City State and the Holy See. Recruitment is arranged by a special agreement between the Holy See and Switzerland. The book is available at Kindle here and to read for free here.. The territory includes St. Peter's Square, distinguished from the territory of Italy only by a white line along the limit of the square, where it touches Piazza Pio XII. Ambassadors are accredited to the Holy See, never to the Vatican City State. [65] His official title with regard to Vatican City is Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City. [17] The independent state of Vatican City, on the other hand, came into existence on 11 February 1929 by the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy, which spoke of it as a new creation,[18] not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States (756–1870), which had previously encompassed much of central Italy. It has multilingual ATMs with instructions in Latin, possibly the only ATM in the world with this feature.[83]. 3) St. Peter's Square, up to but not including the steps leading to the basilica, is normally patrolled by the Italian police.[44]. But with the motu proprio Pontificalis Domus of 28 March 1968,[61] Pope Paul VI abolished the honorary positions that had continued to exist until then, such as Quartermaster general and Master of the Horse. On their return to Rome they chose to live at the Vatican. The Pope himself is Legislative authority is vested in the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, a body of cardinals appointed by the pope for five-year periods. Vatican City's climate is the same as Rome's: a temperate, Mediterranean climate Csa with mild, rainy winters from October to mid-May and hot, dry summers from May to September. Those of the Vatican State remain under the control of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City. The politics of Vatican City take place in a framework of a theocratic absolute elective monarchy, in which the Pope, religiously speaking, the leader of the Catholic Church and Bishop of Rome, exercises ex officio supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power over the Vatican City, a rare case of non-hereditary monarchy. [58] He planted an orchard (pomerium), a lawn (pratellum), and a garden (viridarium).[58]. Richardson, New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, p. 405, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFParisi_Presicce_&_Petacco2016 (, One of the titles of the Pope listed in the, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, List of Sovereigns of the Vatican City State, Corpo della Gendarmeria dello Stato della Città del Vaticano, Corps of Firefighters of the Vatican City State, Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, extraterritorial properties of the Holy See, List of diplomatic missions of the Holy See, Palace of the Governorate of Vatican City State, European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations, European Telecommunications Satellite Organization, International Institute of Administrative Sciences, International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, Philatelic and Numismatic Office of the Vatican City State, "Europe :: Holy See (Vatican City) — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency", "Damien Martin, "Wine and Drunkenness in Roman Society, "Patti lateranensi, 11 febbraio 1929 – Segreteria di Stato, card. [22], Under the Roman Empire, many villas were constructed there, after Agrippina the Elder (14 BC–18 October AD 33) drained the area and laid out her gardens in the early 1st century AD. It is here he carries out his business and meets foreign representatives. and no customs duty on gasoline or goods that they buy in the Vatican. headquarters and Geneva offices. The Guardian newspaper described Mennini and his role in the following manner: "... Paolo Mennini, who is in effect the pope's merchant banker. elected from candidates worldwide by 120 members of the College of This also includes specialized UN Vatican City has no armed forces of its own, although the Swiss Guard is a military corps of the Holy See responsible for the personal security of the Pope, and residents in the state. Mons.

[9][89] The population is composed of clergy, other religious members, and lay people serving the state (such as the Swiss Guard) and their family members. But was Vatican State. [94] For example, as most of the roles which would confer citizenship are reserved for men, the gender ratio of the citizenship is several men per woman. The Vatican is an absolute ecclesiastical elective monarchy where the sitting pope (Bishop of Rome) has ex officio powers on the executive, legislative and judicial arms of the government. The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, Ecclesiastical Latin: [ˈsaŋkta ˈsedes]; Italian: Santa Sede [ˈsanta ˈsɛːde]), also called the See of Rome, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome with universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, as well as a sovereign entity of international law, governing the Vatican City. From 1309 to 1377, they lived at Avignon in France.

[18][13][34] The treaty, which became effective on 7 June 1929, established the independent state of Vatican City and reaffirmed the special status of Catholic Christianity in Italy. All recruits must be Catholic, unmarried males with Swiss citizenship who have completed their basic training with the Swiss Armed Forces with certificates of good conduct, be between the ages of 19 and 30, and be at least 174 cm (5 ft 9 in) in height. In the Swiss Guard, Swiss German is the language used for giving commands, but the individual guards take their oath of loyalty in their own languages: German, French, Italian or Romansh.

The Cardinal Camerlengo presides over the Apostolic Camera to which is entrusted the administration of the property and the protection of the temporal rights of the Holy See during a papal vacancy. Other places are open to only those individuals who have business to transact there. [3][14][15] The pope governs the Catholic Church through the Roman Curia. [91] Italian is also the everyday language used by most of those who work in the state.

The legal system governing church matters is The Holy See has been recognized, both in state practice and in the writing of modern legal scholars, as a subject of public international law, with rights and duties analogous to those of States.

[11] While Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City is perhaps the church most associated with the papacy, the actual cathedral of the Holy See is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in the city of Rome. The elected pope chooses his regnal name immediately. Vatican City was established as an independent state in the year 1929 by the Lateran Treaty. They feature some of the world's most famous paintings and sculptures. Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church from around the world and who are under the age of eighty years elect the pope upon death or retirement of a sitting pope. Get inspired by the Vatican's, Essential Sistine Chapel Tour, Vatican Museum & St. Peter's Basilica. The corps has 130 personnel and is a part of the Directorate for Security Services and Civil Defence (which also includes the Vatican Fire Brigade), an organ of the Governorate of Vatican City.[69][70]. Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran, the Holy See's former Secretary for Relations with States, said that the Vatican City is a "minuscule support-state that guarantees the spiritual freedom of the pope with the minimum territory".[35].

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